API for Outer Product?


Is there an API (or accepted standard way) for an outer product in MXNet? So something similar to NumPy’s numpy.outer(), PyTorch’s torch.ger(), and TensorFlow’s tf.einsum()?

Appologies if I’ve missed something incredibly obvious.


I see that there is the mxnet.ndarray.khatri_rao() in release 1.1.0b20180211, but is there an easy way to get the outer product from that?

@dmadeka, given that it seems you developed this work-around do you have any advice here?


Do you want to do this for more than 3 dimensions? What would be a use case for that?

FWIW - if I had to do this, I would do it specifically, writing einsum is a lot of parsing:

mx.sym.swapaxes(mx.sym.broadcast_mul(mx.sym.expand_dims(x, 1), mx.sym.expand_dims(x, 2)), 0, 1)

Maybe @mseeger has something better - I’ve never really needed to do it


mx.nd.linalg.gemm2 or mx.sym.linalg.gemm2 do the job in a limited way. They take two tensors of arbitrary ranks but only contracts one of the last two indices. As far as I know, the general tensor contraction is not supported.

>>> x = mx.nd.ones((3,1))
>>> y = mx.nd.ones((1,3))
>>> mx.nd.linalg.gemm2(x, y)
[[1. 1. 1.]
 [1. 1. 1.]
 [1. 1. 1.]]
<NDArray 3x3 @cpu(0)>
>>> mx.nd.linalg.gemm2(y, x)
<NDArray 1x1 @cpu(0)>

You can choose the index to contract among the last two using transpose_a and transpose_b options. For general contractions, you need to use gemm2 with swapaxes and reshape functions, the former needs memory allocation and copy while the later does not. So, if possible, it would be better try to use reshape. If you need an addition after contraction, gemm is the right operation instead of gemm2.